The antarctic treaty and related agreements collectively known as the antarctic treaty system ats regulate international relations with respect to antarctica earths only continent without a native human population. Antarctica is the last most inhospitable frontier on earth yet it presents a great number of unresolved conflicts between nations individuals environmentalists scientists and business groups. Article 3 countries shall freely exchange information and personnel cooperate with the united nations and cooperate with other international agencies article 4 no territorial claims on antarctica are recognized disputed or established and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force. Abstract since its establishment in 1959 the antarctic treaty system ats has defused the risks of sovereign competition which arose from the early era of exploration in antarctica and were later brought to a head in the early years of the cold war. 1 antarctica was only discovered in 1773 by captain cook who first crossed the southern polar circle searching for the terra australis it constitutes about 9 of the earths landmass and almost 14 million square kilometres of its surface
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